& Yamaki, S. Different depths of near-trench slips of the 1896 Sanriku and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes. Mar Geol 357:344–361. The geometric mean K is 0.70 and the geometric standard deviation κ is 1.56 for a total of 403 tsunami heights reported by Iki (1897) and Matsuo (1933) (Additional file 1: Table S1, Additional file 2: Table S2). The final model of the 1896 Sanriku earthquake consists of large (20 m) slip with smaller (3–7 m) slips around it. Kamaishi has been periodically hit by tsunami over the centuries, including the ones that struck the Sanriku Coast in 1896 and 1928. Geophys Res Lett 28:3389–3392, Tanioka Y, Ruff L, Satake K (1997) What controls the lateral variation of large earthquake occurrence along the Japan Trench? 2e). Shaking from the 1896 event was not widely felt but the tsunami destroyed nearly 9,000 homes and claimed more than 22,000 lives, making this one of the most damaging earthquakes in Japan’s history. The computed tsunami heights on the southern Sanriku coast become smaller and similar to the observed (Figs. The suddenly rising waters killed nearly 20,000 people and destroyed countless homes, schools, buildings and bridges. w = 8.0. Although the 1896 tsunami heights were measured 37 years after the occurrence based on the eyewitness accounts, the survey points were plotted on 1:50,000 maps and provided valuable information. [2] As was their normal practise each evening, the local fishing fleets were all at sea when the tsunamis struck. The slip on other five subfaults ranges 3–7 m, and the average slip is 7 m, which yields seismic moment of 1.1 × 1021 Nm and the moment magnitude of M Cumulative slips on subfaults of the 2011 (red columns) and 1896 (blue) earthquakes. J Geophys Res 84:1561–1568, Article  We use the subfault configuration of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake of Satake et al. The Meiji-Sanriku earthquake in 1896 occurred in the same area as the Tohuku earthquake in 2011. Über 27.000 Menschen kamen um. (2013b), but only the spatial slip distribution is estimated. While this is slightly smaller than the observed value, the timing is similar to the reported. The 8.5 magnitude earthquake occurred at 19: 32 local The 1994 o Official Journal of the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS), Geoscience Letters The 1896 Sanriku earthquake was one of the most destructive seismic events in Japanese history. Sanriku, Japan- 1896 The 1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake hit Japan after an estimated magnitude 7.6 earthquake occurred off the coast of Sanriku, Japan. Pure Appl Geophys 170:1567–1582. Abstract. Privacy The 1896 Sanriku Tsunami, The 1933 Sanriku Tsunami, The 1946 Aleutian Tsunami, The 1960 Chilean Tsunami, Post-tsunami urban recovery planning, Urban safety planning for tsunami … 1611, 1896, 1933, and 2011 tsunamis were particularly large. The moment magnitude M 2011; Satake et al. More recently, Lay et al. After a small earthquake, there was little concern because it was so weak and many small tremors had also been felt in the previous few months. 1a). June 15 – Sanriku earthquake: One of the most destructive seismic events in Japanese history. From the Manhattan Project By Nikola Tesla Producing Significant Earthquakes “Fishermen twenty miles out to sea didn’t s 8.5). In Hawaii, wharves were demolished and several houses were swept away. Previous studies indicate that the earthquake occurred It occurred along the Japan Trench in the northern tsunami source area of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake where a delayed tsunami generation has been proposed. In California, a 9.5 feet wave was observed, according to the San Francisco Chronicle of June 16, 1896. Soc Japan) 2(47):89–92 (in Japanese). Asakura Publishing, Tokyo, p 350, Takahashi N, Kodaira S, Tsuru T, Park J-O, Kaneda Y, Suyehiro K, Kinoshita J, Abe S, Nishino M, Hino R (2004) Seismic structure and seismogenesis off Sanriku region, northeastern Japan. Phys Earth Planet Inter 6:246–259, Lay T, Kanamori H, Ammon CJ, Koper KD, Hutko AR, Ye L, Yue H, Rushing TM (2012) Depth-varying rupture properties of subduction zone megathrust faults. The lower death rate in 1933 reflects, in part, the precautions taken after 1896 earthquake to cope with possible future earthquakes and tsunamis. The resulting tsunami was 125.3 feet high in some places, a record height until the 11 March 2011 tsunami, which reached 127.6 feet high in the town of Aneyoshi, in Iwate prefecture. Isl Arc 6:261–266, Tappin DR, Grilli ST, Harris JC, Geller RJ, Masterlark T, Kirby JT, Shi F, Ma G, Thingbaijam KKS, Mai PM (2014) Did a submarine landslide contribute to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami? KS made overall design of the study and drafted the manuscript. However, the computed tsunami waveforms at regional distances are much larger than the recorded ones, particularly at Hanasaki and Ayukawa (Fig. This model is basically similar to that of Tanioka and Satake (1996b), although their average slip is smaller (5.7 m) and the dip angle is larger (20°). Terms and Conditions, Category News & Politics Suggested by SME Sarah McLachlan - Angel (Video) Song Angel Artist Sarah McLachlan Album Celtic Music. a Epicenter (black star) and seismic intensity distribution of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, according to Japan Meteorological Agency. In the present study, the local tsunami amplification observed in Ryori Bay, located on the Sanriku coast of Japan, was investigated using numerical simulations. [2][9] The damage was particularly severe because the tsunamis coincided with high tides. It should be noted that tsunami height data on the Sanriku coast have not been used in the previous studies of the 1896 earthquake. The slips on the shallowest subfaults along the axis (row 0, depth of 0–3.5 km) are 11–36 m, whereas those on row 1 at the depth of 3.5–7 km range from 1 to 22 m. The average slip for the eight subfaults is 17 m, yielding the seismic moment of 3.5 × 1021 Nm and the corresponding moment magnitude M This enigma was explained by a delayed tsunami generation in the northern part of tsunami source through the tsunami waveform analysis (Satake et al. In order to find a model that explains the tsunami waveforms, we conduct inversion of the 1896 tsunami waveforms recorded at three tide gage stations. The plate convergence rate is about 8 m per century (e.g., Sella G et al. Abstract The 1896 Sanriku earthquake was a typical ‘tsunami earthquake’ which caused large tsunami despite its weak ground shaking. Previous studies indicate that the earthquake occurred beneath the accretionary wedge near the trench axis. Most deaths occurred in Iwate and Miyagi although casualties were also recorded from Aomori and Hokkaido. Posted on 7 września 2020. by. This work was partially supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16H01838. Large-scale tsunami propagation simulations and tsunami inundation simulations for the bay were systematically conducted to estimate and model the 2011, 1933, and 1896 tsunamis that occurred off the Sanriku coast and which resulted … 1908; Imamura and Moriya 1939). It is also partially explained by the difference between the two causal earthquakes. While the tsunami heights on the northern and central Sanriku coasts were similar for the two tsunamis, the tsunami heights on the southern Sanriku coast and the tsunami waveforms at regional distances were smaller for the 1896 earthquake. Part of The trench forms part of the convergent boundary between the Pacific and Eurasian plates. 2f). 1854 Toukai, Nankai 1896 Meiji Sanriku 1933 Showa Sanriku 1944 Tounankai 1946 Nankai 1960 Chile 1983 Japan Sea 1993 Okushiri 2011 Tohoku Tsunami around Japan Eurasian plate Philippine plate Pacific plate North American Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032, Japan, International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, Building Research Institute, 1 Tachihara, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0802, Japan, Seamus Ltd, 2235 Kizaki, Kita-ku, Niigata, 950-3304, Japan, You can also search for this author in However, the cause of the delayed tsunami generation is still controversial, either due to slip on shallow plate interface (Satake et al. Thirty-five minutes after the earthquake, the most devastating tsunami in Japan’s history reached the shore at the same time as high tide. Computed tsunami heights on 75 m grids for the four different models are shown by colored lines. Comparison of 6 models a 2011 model with 8 subfaults and 200 km long, b 2011 model with 6 subfaults and 150 km long, c 1896 inversion model, d 1896 final model, e uniform (20 m) slip at 3.5–7 km depth, f uniform (20 m) slip at 0–3.5 km depth. This earthquake is now regarded as being part of a distinct class of seismic events, the tsunami earthquake. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-012-0536-y, Satake K, Fujii Y, Harada T, Namegaya Y (2013b) Time and space distribution of coseismic slip of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake as inferred from tsunami waveform data. In Hawaii, wharves were demolished and several houses were swept away. Kenji Satake. This model reproduces tsunami waveforms at regional distances but underestimates the Sanriku tsunami heights, particularly on the southern Sanriku coast. The tsunami was also observed across the Pacific. Springer Nature. 1c, Tsuji et al. In Minami-Sanriku town, there are monuments for the 1896 Meiji, the 1933 Showa and the 1960 Chile tsunamis. 2014) as detailed in the “Tsunami data of the 1896 earthquake.”, Tsunami waveform modeling of the 1896 Sanriku earthquake has shown that slip occurred on a narrow fault located near the trench axis (Tanioka and Satake 1996b; Tanioka and Seno 2001). Matsuo (1933) made field survey to measure the heights of both 1896 and 1933 tsunamis. It resulted in two tsunamis which destroyed about 9,000 homes and caused at least 22,000 deaths In 1933, another devastating tsunami, with maximum height of 29 m and approximately 3000 fatalities, was caused by the 1933 Sanriku earthquake (M However, the tsunami heights on the Sanriku coast from the 2011 and 1896 earthquakes were roughly similar (Fig. 1a shows that the strong ground shaking was recorded to the south of the epicenter, where large (> 10 m) slip occurred at deeper (> 7 km) subfaults. Phys Earth Planet Inter 27:194–205, Abe K (1994) Instrumental magnitudes of historical earthquakes, 1892–1898. 1c), and published in the annual report of the Central Meteorological Observatory (1902). PubMed Google Scholar. We first adopt the northeastern eight subfaults of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami source model (Satake et al. The Sanriku Coastal Area, a tsunami-prone region located in the northern part of the main island of Japan, survived catastrophic tsunamis in 1896, 1933, and 1960. Introduction The Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw = 9.0) and tsunami that struck on March 11, 2011, generated severe damage along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. 5 Tsunami memorial stone: Such as stone monuments, can be found in many areas along the Sanriku coast. It describes as follows. It destroyed 170 miles of coastline as many as 10,000 homes. Cookies policy. w 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Bull Seismol Soc Am 75:135–1154, Omori F, Hirata K (1899) Earthquake measurement at Miyako. The 1896 tsunami was instrumentally recorded on three tide gage stations at regional distances in Japan: Hanasaki (440 km from the epicenter), Ayukawa (250 km), and Choshi (500 km) (Fig. The power of the tsunami was great: large numbers of victims were found with broken bodies or missing limbs. The 8.5 magnitude earthquake occurred at 19:32 (local time) on June 15, 1896, approximately 166 kilometres (103 mi) off the coast of Iwate Prefecture, Honshu.. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02350.x, Tanioka Y, Satake K (1996a) Tsunami generation by horizontal displacement of ocean bottom. Juni 1896 ( Meiji 29) vor der Küste Japans um etwa 19:32 Ortszeit. Kamaishi in April 2011. d Tsunami waveforms from the 1896 Sanriku (blue curves) and 2011 Tohoku (red curves) earthquakes recorded at the three tide gage stations, In the northern part of the 2011 tsunami source, the 15 June 1896 Sanriku earthquake occurred and caused the worst tsunami disaster in Japan, with casualties of ~ 20, 000 (Shuto et al. "On June 15, 1896, nearly 22,000 Japanese lost their lives due to the most devastating tsunami in Japanese history. Geophys Res Lett 23:861–864, Tanioka Y, Satake K (1996b) Fault parameters of the 1896 Sanriku tsunami earthquake estimated from tsunami numerical modeling. No written records of large tsunamis are available before the 1896 event. The moment magnitude M Therefore the timing of tsunami arrival at Miyako provides additional important information. Tsunami heights on the Sanriku coast reported by (a) Iki (1897) and (b) Matsuo (1933) are shown by black circles. Geophys Res Lett. SY made detailed computations on the Sanriku coast with the fine grid for various fault models. The geometric mean K is 1.87, and the geometric standard deviation κ is 1.46. Dashed lines (18 min and 35 min after the earthquake origin time) indicate the observed tsunami arrivals of first and maximum waves (see text). The Meiji Sanriku earthquake and tsunami of 1896 is the most recent example of the earth shaking so mildly that people did not expect the massive tsunami wave trains that followed. Large earthquakes have generated destructive tsunamis in the past. However, the computed tsunami waveforms at regional distances (Hanasaki and Choshi) are very similar to the previous model and the observed ones. (2014). This indicates that the 2011 northern slip near the trench axis, delayed ~ 3 min of the main slip near the epicenter, occurred on parts where the 1896 slip was not very large. w of 8.3, assuming the rigidity of 2 × 1010 N/m2. The 8.5 magnitude earthquake occurred at 19:32 (local time) on June 15, 1896, approximately 166 kilometres (103 mi) off the coast of Iwate Prefecture, Honshu.It resulted in two tsunamis which destroyed about 9,000 homes and caused at least 22,000 deaths. Jpn J Astron Geophys 17:119–140, Kanamori H (1972) Mechanism of tsunami earthquakes. t was determined as 8.6 from global data (Abe 1979) and 8.2 from Japanese data (Abe 1981). During the 1896 Sanriku earthquake, the large (20 m) slip occurred on subfaults (1B and 1C: Table 1) at a depth of 3.5–7 km. We also compare the tsunami source models, or obtained slip distributions, of the 1896 and 2011 earthquakes, and discuss why the 2011 earthquake was not a ‘tsunami earthquake.’. The water depth at these subfaults are also different: the water is deeper for the shallower subfaults near the trench axis. 2b, 3). In this study, we adopt the reported tsunami heights by Iki (1897) and Matsuo (1933) and compare them with the calculated heights. 2014), but not recorded on other types (seismographs or high-rate GPS) of data. (bottom) Tsunami waveforms at three tide gage stations at regional distances. 1b, Honda et al. http://www.dpbolvw.net/click-5028330-10426267 3, Additional file 1: Tables S1, Additional file 2: Table S2). w = 8.2. On June 15. In order to find the best 1896 tsunami source model, we start from the northern part of the 2011 source model, compute the tsunami heights on the Sanriku coast and tsunami waveforms at tide gage stations, and compare them with the 1896 observations. Velocity structure profile touched in Takahashi et al. The subfaults are placed on the Pacific plate (Nakajima and Hasegawa 2006), and the top depths beneath seafloor are 0 and 3.5 km for shallowest (row 0) and next (row 1) subfaults (Table 1). The often-quoted maximum height of 38 m at Shirahama from the 1896 Sanriku tsunami was based on his report. Although the depths of largest slip of the 1896 and 2011 earthquakes were different, the frictional properties on these shallowest subfaults may be similar. The delayed rupture along the northern Japan Trench during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake was estimated by tsunami data (Satake et al. While the 2011 earthquake has a feature of ‘tsunami earthquake’ in the northern part of the source, deeper slip in the southern part of the source caused strong ground shaking, hence the 2011 was not a ‘tsunami earthquake.’. The tsunami heights on the Sanriku coast from this model are smaller (K = 1.63), while the tsunami waveforms at regional distances are similar to those from the previous uniform-slip model at 3.5–7 km depth. On the evening of June 15, 1896, communities along the Sanriku coast in northern Japan were celebrating a Shinto holiday and the return of soldiers from the First Sino-Japanese War. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JB009133, Matsuo H (1933) Report on the survey of the 1933 Sanriku tsunami. Keywords: Paleo-tsunami, Sanriku coast, Japan, Tsunami deposit identification, AD 869 Jogan tsunami, Storm wave, Numerical modeling Introduction The Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw=9.0) and tsunami that struck on March 11, 2011, generated severe damage along This revised fault model gave a magnitude of Mw =8.0–8.1. The average slip on the eight subfaults is 8 m, yielding the seismic moment of 1.6 × 1021 Nm and the moment magnitude of M Seafloor displacement is calculated for a rectangular fault model in an elastic half-space (Okada, 1985). “At 19 h 32 m 30 s (local time), a weak shock of earthquake was felt, lasting for about 5 min. 1b). The ground shaking was weak (2–3 on the JMA seismic intensity scale, corresponding to 4–5 on the Modified Mercalli scale; Fig. Kamaishi has been periodically hit by tsunami over the centuries, including the ones that struck the Sanriku Coast in 1896 and 1928. The timing of the peak amplitude from the 2011 model is later (Fig. J Geophys Res 107:11–30. On March 11, 2011 at 14:46, the most powerful earthquake ever recorded in Japan occurred 70 kilometers off the Pacific coast of the Tohoku Region.Approximately 30 minutes later a devastating tsunami struck the Sanriku Coast.The suddenly rising waters killed nearly 20,000 people and destroyed countless homes, schools, buildings and bridges. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. (1997) further proposed that the 1896 Sanriku ‘tsunami earthquake’ occurred in a region where the ocean bottom topography is rough, characterized by well-developed horst and graben structures. The largest heights of 55 m were reported at two locations. The origin time: 19 h 32 m (local time), the epicenter: 144°E, 39.5°N, and magnitude: M = 6.8 were estimated from Japanese seismological data (Utsu 1979). A careful manual observation of the tsunami was conducted at the Miyako meteorological observatory (Miyako is shown in Fig. The closest profile to the 1896 Sanriku earthquake source (Fig. We finally extend the large (20 m) slip to the southern subfault (1C) (Fig. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Iki (1897) made a survey in June and July of 1896 along the Sanriku coast. Geophys J Int 142:684–702. The bathymetry data are sampled from J-EGG500 (mesh data with 500 m interval provided by Japan Oceanographic Data Center) and M-7000 series digital bathymetry chart (provided by Japan Hydrographic Association), but newer coastal topography such as breakwater around tide gage stations are removed to reproduce the situation in 1896. It killed … J Geophys Res 117:B707409. For comparison, we also test another model of uniform 20 m slip, with the same size, at shallowest (0–3.5 km) part (Fig. However, a careful inspection of Fig. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. In addition, the tsunami arrival times were measured relative to the earthquake. https://doi.org/10.1785/0120120122, Sella GF, Dixon TH, Mao AL (2002) REVEL: a model for recent plate velocities from space geodesy. The computed tsunami heights are similar to the observed heights on the northern Sanriku coast, but larger than those on the southern coast (Figs. However, 35 minutes later the first tsunami wave struck the coast, followed by a second a few minutes later. However, comparative multibeam surveys before and after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in the northern Japan Trench did not detect large bathymetry change indicating large submarine landslide (Fujiwara et al. Computed tsunamis from the northeastern part of the 2011 tsunami source model roughly reproduced the 1896 tsunami heights on the Sanriku coast, but were much larger than the recorded tsunami waveforms. The tsunami heights along the northern and central Sanriku coasts from both earthquakes were similar, but the tsunami waveforms at regional distances in Japan were much larger in 2011. However, additional tests indicate that the water depth difference makes an insignificant effect for the tsunami heights on the Sanriku coast. Note that the scale for horizontal axis is location numbers (Additional file 1: Table S1, Additional file 2: Table S2), not distance. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Sanriku earthquake was followed 30 minutes later by a huge tsunami that towered as high as 38.2 meters. Over 27,000 deaths. In addition, the deeper (3.5–7 km) subfaults produce larger seafloor displacements than surface rupture (top depth of 0 km), hence the tsunami heights are also larger. w = 8.1. 1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake damage and effects in Kamaishi, Iwate‎ (7 F) Media in category "1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake" The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. The 1896 Sanriku earthquake was one of the most It resulted in two tsunamis which destroyed about 9,000 homes and caused at least 22,000 deaths. Polet and Kanamori (2000) extended this model to global subduction zones, based on the examination of the source spectra of large (M > 7) earthquakes in the 1990s. The slip ratio (2011/1896) is smaller than one in the deeper (3.5–7 km) subfaults except for the southern one (1D), while the ratio ranges 1.9–13 on the shallowest subfaults (Table 1). J Phys Earth 26:57–73, Central Meteorological Observatory (1902) On the earthquakes in the year 1896 in annual report. https://doi.org/10.5047/eps.2011.06.010, Fujiwara T, dos Ferreira Santos C, Bachmann AK, Strasser M, Wefer G, Sun T, Kanamatsu T, Kodaira S (2017) Seafloor displacement after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake in the northern Japan Trench examined by repeated bathymetric surveys. Hence the complimentary slips of the 1896 and 2011 earthquakes indicate slip partitioning of these events. 2012), and tsunami waveforms (Fujii et al. Date: 1896/6/15 Earthquake Magnitude: 8.5; Death Toll: over 27,000; On June 15, 1896, a magnitude 8.5 earthquake struck off the coast of the Sanriku region (eastern Iwate, Miyagi, and Aomori).. Lett. This is expected from the comparison of the 1896 and 2011 data; the tsunami heights are similar on the Sanriku coast, but the amplitude and period of tsunami waveforms are very different (Fig. This is a common feature of ‘tsunami earthquakes’ such as the 1992 Nicaragua or 2010 Mentawai earthquakes (Satake and Tanioka 1999; Satake et al. Approximately 35 minutes later after the initial shock, the Tesla Tsunami struck. Did both earthquakes rupture the same shallow plate interface or different parts? During the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, slip on the 1896 asperity (at a depth of 3.5–7 km) was 3–14 m, while the shallower part (depth 0–3.5 km) slipped 20–36 m. Thus the large slips on the plate interface during the 1896 and 2011 earthquakes were complementary. The Tesla Tsunami was also observed across the Pacific. (2013b). b Epicenter and seismic intensity distribution of the 1896 Sanriku earthquake. Bull Earthq Res Inst Univ Tokyo 54:253–308, Utsu T (1994) Aftershock activity of the 1896 Sanriku earthquake. 2002), hence these may correspond to 250–500 years of slip deficit. 4). The average slip becomes 14 m, the seismic moment is 2.1 × 1021 Nm, and M The Great Meiji Sanriku Tsunami: Pictograph: Date: June 15, 1896: Place: Sanriku coast of the Tohoku region, Japan: Location: along the Sanriku coast: Overview: After a strong earthquake with a magnitude of 8.5 occurred 150 km off the Sanriku coast, a huge tsunami struck the coast of Sanriku. 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