apple of Sodom. Bull nettle flower and leaves. Young plant showing leaves and flowers. These are 12mm to 15mm in diameter; they may be up to 20mm. Horsenettle, Solanum Carolinense, is similar looking to the Tropical Soda Apple but is a smaller plant. Horsenettle is part of the nightshade family, which includes tomatoes and potatoes. They become yellow when mature, but are not edible to humans. A Loja de Saúde do Prado, está sediada na Vila de Prado e tem uma Filial em Vila Verde, que oferece uma gama completa de produtos para todos os tipos de situações ortopédicas, anca, coluna, joelho, tornozelo, mão, cotovelo, ombro, punho e pé. The leaves are usually shallowly lobed and up to about 5 inches long. Wise, Christopher F. Sacchi, "Impact of two specialist insect herbivores on reproduction of horse nettle, "Insects, Nematodes, and Pathogens Associated with Horsenettle (, "Plants Profile for Solanum carolinense (Carolina horsenettle)", Texas A&M University, AgriLife Research & Extension Center at Uvalde, Carolina Horse Nettle,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The plant grows to 3 feet (91 cm) tall, is perennial, and spreads by both seeds and underground rhizome. In spite of the edible cousins, do not eat any part of this plant; as with most nightshades it is highly poisonous. Scientific Name(s): Cnidoscolus stimulosus, Cnidoscolus texanus Abundance: common What: seeds, taproot How: seeds raw, roasted; root baked Where: sunny fields When: summer, fall Nutritional Value: protein, calories Dangers: entire plant is covered in stinging hairs similar to stinging nettle. The berries should be harvested when fully ripe and carefully air-dried. The fungus Rhizoctonia solani was found causing root rot, particularly under wet conditions in plants damaged by trampling. The deep … The deep root also makes it difficult to remove. [4][5] The stem and undersides of larger leaf veins are covered with spines. [9] The caterpillars of the Synanthedon rileyana moth[8] and the Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm) moth feeds on the plant. Horsenettle flowers can be purple or white where Tropical Soda Apple has only white blossoms. They are pubescent on the upper surface and have sessile stellate (star-shaped) hairs on the lower surface. Stems of older plants are woody. A tea made from the wilted leaves has been gargled in the treatment of sore throats and the tea has been drunk in … It is resistant to many postemergent herbicides and somewhat resistant to broad-spectrum herbicides such as glyphosate and 2,4-D. Phonetic Spelling so-LAN-num kair-oh-lin-EN-say This plant has medium severity poison characteristics. Pick only the tenderest, youngest leaves. [3] It has also been found in parts of Europe, Asia, and Australia. The leaves of the horsenettle plant contain prickly fibers making it undesirable to many animals, but ingestion does happen occasionally. Because of its many spines, the forage value of Carolina horse nettle is poor for wildlife and livestock. PO Box 63, Seneca, SC 29679; 864.606.4673; [9] This plant is also eaten by Leptinotarsa decemlineata (the Colorado potato beetle) and has been recorded as being eaten at very low rates by pupae of an unidentified species of the family Gelechiidae. The immature fruit is dark green with light green stripes, turning yellow and wrinkled as it matures. Horses tend to avoid the plant because it is distasteful, and they are unlikely to eat enough to cause serious problems unless the weed is rampant in their pasture or they have no other suitable forage. Solanum carolinense L. – Carolina horsenettle Subordinate Taxa. Bull nettle seed pod which hold the tasty seeds. All content except USDA Plants Database map Copyright Gerald C. Williamson 2021, Wildflowers of Tennessee, the Ohio Valley and the Southern Appalachians: 2nd Edition, Weakley's Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States (2015), Dicot Perennial Subshrub Herb Leaves:Alternate. Because of the intense competition among plants and their root systems, this plant is less aggressive in prairie habitats than in disturbed sites around developed areas. In European traditional medicine, the plant has been used as a strong sudorific, analgesic, and sedative with powerful narcotic properties. bull nettle. Perennial herb with prickles; leaves alternate and simple, lobed or coarsely toothed; flower white to purplish, 5-parted; fruit a yellow berry. [10] These two beetles are its two primary herbivores, and can reduce fruit production by as much as 75% relative to plants protected from all insects. At least thirty-two insects, as well as the meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus, have been recorded feeding on this species in Virginia alone. Solanum carolinense, the Carolina horsenettle,[2] is not a true nettle, but a member of the Solanaceae, or nightshade family. Noxious weed U.S. Weed Information; Solanum carolinense . If indeed your "nettle" is U. dioica, then yes it is most certainly an edible. An infusion of the seeds has been gargled as a treatment for sore throats and drunk in the treatment of goitre. Horse Nettle is widely regarded as a weed, with some justication, but it is also one of the native wildflowers of the prairie. Carolina horsenettle. This page only shows Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica) and Wood Nettle (Laportea canadensis).For contrast, two similar plants are shown at the bottom that are often confused with these species: Horse Balm (Collinsonia canadensis) and False Nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica). The caterpillars of the day-flying moth Synanthedon rileyana (Riley's Clearwing) feed on Horse Nettle. "Horsenettle" is also written "horse nettle" or "horse-nettle", though USDA publications usually use the one-word form. It flowers throughout the summer, from April to October (on the northern hemisphere). The fruit is poisonous to livestock. Solanum carolinense - Carolina Horse Nettle, Bull Nettle, Devil's Tomato. Each fruit contains numerous seeds that are glossy yellow and flattened. It is an especially despised weed by gardeners who hand-weed, as the spines tend to penetrate the skin and then break off when the plant is grasped. They have been used in the treatment of epilepsy [207, 222]. Though there are other horsenettle nightshades, S. carolinense is the species most commonly called "the horsenettle". Pinching off the top of the plant is a great way to take only tender new growth while leaving most of the plant to continue growing. Not a true nettle, this is a member of the nightshade genus which includes the garden tomato. It can spread vegetatively by underground rhizomes as well as by seed. Anodyne Antispasmodic Aphrodisiac Diuretic Poultice. Younger Carolina Bristle Mallow leaves are more deeply cleft/lobed than mature leaves. Michael J. Bumble bees pollinate the flowers of this species. ... We have a growing amount of horse nettle in our pastures–likely because our cows don’t eat it so unless we get it clipped at the right stage, it is seeding out and spreading. The stems, petioles, and central leaf vein, and occasionally the leaf margins, have sharp and painful prickles. Some familiar members of this family include to-bacco, tomato and potato. Carolina horsenettle is considered a noxious weed in several US states. Close-up of flower and seedpod. [7], These plants can be found growing in pastures, roadsides, railroad margins, and in disturbed areas and waste ground. Home → Survival → Food → Edible Plants Nettles: There are several species of nettles. One reason the Iowa noxious weed list hasn’t been brought up for reform and updating, as many professionals know it should be, is because of fear that the Legislature could easily make the list worse instead of better. They grow to about 1 m (39 in) tall, but are typically shorter, existing as subshrubs. The plant is also affected by Erysiphe cichoracearum, causing powdery mildew. This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 21:10. It is resistant to many postemergent herbicides and somewhat resistant to broad-spectrum herbicides such as glyphosate and 2,4-D. Most mammals avoid eating the stems and leaves due to both the spines and toxicity of the plant.[8]. However, it is not considered an edible plant like its potato and tomato counterparts. It is an especially despised weed by gardeners who hand-weed, as the spines tend to penetrate the skin and then break off when the plant is grasped. Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense), a poisonous member of the nightshade family, is one of the most difficult weeds to eradicate since it resists most attempts at control.Tilling the soil only makes it worse because it brings seeds to the surface where they can germinate. Manduca sexta moths prefer inbred plants to outbred plants. Contact us to report errors. The blossom of Carolina Horse Nettle is white to pale violet with long yellow anthers. See below Description. Primary noxious weed Nevada. The fruits also resemble tomatoes. This moth is a wasp mimic. Having Carolina horse nettle on the same list as major threats like multiflora rose is absurd. Blades, which alternate, are up to 10.0 cm l… Each fruit contains around 60 seeds. [12] It can spread vegetatively by underground rhizomes as well as by seed. Carolina horsenettle is considered a noxious weed in several US states. Other common names include radical weed, sand brier or briar, bull nettle, tread-softly, Solanum mammosum ("apple of Sodom"), devil's tomato and wild tomato. This native of southeastern North Amer-ica is found throughout Tennessee; it … The fruits are benefical to wildlife. This plant should be used with caution, see the notes above on toxicity. Notice the spines on the stem. The berries and the root are anodyne, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac and diuretic [4, 222]. It is a perennial herbaceous plant, native to the southeastern United States that has spread widely throughout much of temperate North America. ... horse nettle. I second Tyler's call to use the latin, and be sure of the id. While the entire plant is toxic when ingested, the berries contain the highest potency of toxin. The leaves feel coarse and the stem is hairy. [11], Fruits are eaten by a variety of native animals, including ring-necked pheasant, bobwhite, wild turkey, and striped skunk. It also contains the nightshades and horse nettles, as well as numerous plants cultivated for their ornamental flowers and fruit. However, in these parts, there is also the Horse Nettle, Solanum carolinense, which contains solanine, a dangerous substance to ingest. [11], Parasitic nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus have been found on lesions on its roots, however causing little damage. All branches and stems are sharp, hard and have 5 mm long spikes. The fruit of Carolina Horse Nettle is yellow when ripe. While called a nettle, the Horsenettle is an herbaceous perennial plant of the nightshade family, native to the southeastern United States. Horse-nettle Scouting and Prevention: Horsenettle has an erect stem that stands about 60 to 100 cm tall with a few branches that are covered with tiny hairs at the top of the plant. When in pastures, horsenettle is often difficult to get rid of, due to it's deep roots and prickly stems and leaves. In fact, herbicide use often selects for horsenettle by removing competing weeds. Like most edible plants, the best way to eat nettle is to consume it shortly after being harvested. Both surfaces are covered with fine hairs. The Tropical Soda Apple has larger leaves and long thorns and is more shrubby. Carolina horsenettle is commonly found in the southeastern United States. Carolina Horse Nettle is weak-stemmed and can be sprawling, or erect to about 3 feed tall. The beetle Leptinotarsa juncta specializes on this plant, and the beetle Epitrix fuscula (eggplant flea beetle) eats it as well. [6] They prefer full sun, but can tolerate both wet or dry conditions. Examples of nightshade plants include tomatoes, potatoes, bell peppers, jimsonweed and the poisonous belladonna nightshade. In fact, herbicide use often selects for horsenettle by removing competing weeds. All content except USDA Plants Database map Copyright Gerald C. Williamson 2021Photographs Copyright owned by the named photographer. Locally, a common nightshade is Carolina Horse-nettle (Solanum carolinense), the plant with … The scientific name is Solanum carolinense, and it is regarded as one of the most challenging plants to eradicate because it resists most efforts at control. Any livestock---including cattle, sheep, goats and pigs as well as horses---may be poisoned after eating large quantities of horse nettle. Horsenettle, also called Carolina horsenettle or bullnettle, is a her-baceous perennial that is a member of the nightshade family (Solanaceae). Flickr photos above were identified by the individual photographers but not reviewed by EoPS. Characteristics of the Carolina horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) Family: Solanaceae (nightshades). They are most vigorous and most likely to become weedy or dominate on disturbed sites, but can also be found in less disturbed habitats.[8]. Saying it’s not edible because my cows don’t eat it is the same as saying, vegetables aren’t edible because my 3 year old won’t eat them. These fruits can be. They grow readily in sandy or loamy soils, and may also tolerate a wide range of soil types. Carolina horse-nettle, horse-nettle, or bull-nettle (S. carolinense) (Figure 2) is a low-growing perennial herbaceous plant with a typical height between 0.3 and 1.3 m (Great Plains Flora Association 1986:647; Peterson and McKenny 1996:324; Steyermark 1981:1313). The mature yellow fruits are eaten, to a limited extent, by the Ring-Necked Pheasant, Bobwhite, Wild Turkey, Eastern Striped Skunk, and possibly small rodents, thereby promoting the distribution of the seeds and spread of this plant. The Solanaceae family includes the Irish potato. Carolina horsenettle. The stem is long and not heavily branching; it is covered in 2.0 - 4.0 mm long spines. Carolina horsenettle synonyms, Carolina horsenettle pronunciation, Carolina horsenettle translation, English dictionary definition of Carolina horsenettle. Close-up of the leaves. While ingesting any part of the plant can cause fever, headache, scratchy throat, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, ingesting the fruit can cause abdominal pain, circulatory and respiratory depression, or even death. However, ripe berries and cooked leaves of edible strains are used as food in some locales, and plant parts are used as a traditional medicine. Carolina nightshade (Solanum carolinense), also known as horsenettle, is a perennial weed that is a member of the nightshade (Solanaceae) family.It is a common contaminate of horse pastures and poor quality hay bales in the southeastern United States. The root system has creeping underground rhizomes, which are responsible for the vegetative spread of this plant. This moth is a wasp mimic. Solanum is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants, which include three food crops of high economic importance, the potato, the tomato and the eggplant (aubergine, brinjal). Leaves smell like potatoes when crushed. Nightshades are a worldwide family that contains many plants with highly toxic fruits; in fact, the Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the few nightshades that is edible. Carolina Bristle Mallow. The flowers have five petals and are usually white or purple with yellow centers, though there is a blue variant that resembles the tomato flower. Search Our Database: Enter any portion of the Scientific, Common Name, or both. EUROPEAN AND MEDITERRANEAN PLANT PROTECTION ORGANIZATION, ЕВРОПЕЙСКАЯ И СРЕДИЗЕМНОМОРСКАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПО КАРАНТИНУ И ЗАЩИТЕ РАСТЕНИЙ, ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE ET MEDITERRANEENNE POUR LA PROTECTION DES PLANTES, Leaves are alternate, elliptic-oblong to oval, Biota of North America Program 2014 state-level distribution map, "Identification and Control of Horsenettle, Horse Nettle (Solanum carolinense), Illinois Wildflowers. [6], All parts of the plant, including its tomato-like fruit, are poisonous to varying degrees due to the presence of solanine glycoalkaloids which is a toxic alkaloid and one of the plant's natural defenses. [10] Anthonomus nigrinus feeds on the flowers, and Trichobaris trinotata bores into the stems. Surface portion of Carolina Bristle Mallow plus long runner. It is propagated by underground creeping rhizomes as well as by seed dispersal, often involving animals as vectors. Leaves are alternate, elliptic-oblong to oval, 2.5 to 4.5 inches (6.4 to 11.4 centimetres) long, and each is irregularly lobed or coarsely toothed.